There are links between the income, education, and importance of consistency and the well being of the child, to the parents, and the development of their child. Higher educated parents place more importance on the education of their children than the parents who do not have a college degree or have not graduated from high school. Likewise, parents who have a higher income level are more willing to part with their money to purchase a private tutor or nanny to assist the parent in the education of their child. They also tend to stress the importance of being socially inept.[30] The first few years of a child's life are important to form a basis for good education, morality, self-discipline and social integration. Consistency of approach, skills and qualifications of caregivers have been shown in many studies to improve the chances of a child reaching his or her full potential. Child care in much of western society is currently in crisis: there are not enough daycare spots, the cost for most parents is beyond their means, and child care staff are grossly underpaid. Starting wages for Early Childcare Educators start at $11 or $12, causing a high turnover rate, and decreases the likelihood of potentially safe, effective, and loving child care providers from even entering the field. For preschool teachers the average salary is about $28,570.[34] According to a survey done by HiMama, 68% of for-profit child care organizations ranked 'Labor' as their top risk and 65% ranked 'Talent and Recruitment' as their top priority for 2017.[35]
Parents spend a significant amount of time raising their children. These parents nurture and develop their children into being functional members of society. This hard work is not motivated by monetary gain. For centuries it has been assumed that women will stay home and take care of the children while their husbands go out and work. In most cases, the husbands get all the credit for providing for the family. However, the wife who is the homemaker, deserves just as much credit for her care work. Caregivers do not receive monetary compensation and they must pay a ‘care-penalty.[40]

Our teachers are encouraged personalize activities from our Ascend Curriculum to help children reach important developmental milestones at every age. We take a unique skill-based approach to early education that progressively builds skill sets in nine subjects every month. Important skills are introduced in every program and fine-tuned before kindergarten in our popular Kindergarten Club program. We modify activities from our curriculum to match the needs and interests of each student to ensure that these first educational experiences are engaging and fun!
Jobs in child day care are found across the country, mirroring the distribution of the population. However, day care centers are less common in rural areas, where there are fewer children to support a separate facility. Child day care operations vary in size, from the self-employed person caring for a few children in a private home to the large corporate-sponsored center employing a sizable staff. Almost 86 percent of all wage and salary jobs in 2008 were located in establishments with fewer than 50 employees.

How Much Is Health Care For A Child


Preschool education (Frühpädagogik) is increasingly seen as an integral part of education as a whole; several states such as Bavaria have released detailed educational plans for daycare carriers who claim state subsidies. "Early pedagogics" has increasingly moved into the academic domain, with an increasing number of staff being trained at universities of applied science (Fachhochschulen) and regular universities. Non-academic personnel in daycare facilities have usually attended specialized schools for several years. In the state of Bavaria for example, daycare assistants (Kinderpfleger) will have attended school for two years, daycare teachers (Erzieher) for three years with an additional two-year internship.

Where To Find Daycare


Because of our long term commitment to finding the best childcare possible, we search for a wide selection of candidates to meet your family's needs. We take the utmost care to search for the very best applicants, we look for potential applicants that match your own unique situation. Having the same personnel for so many year had enabled us to develop lasting relationships with our thousands of families and caregivers for many years! Our wealth of experience and our relationships based on continuity and trust has earned us a loyal base of incredible families and candidates. We will gladly furnish Agency references from families that have used our services for many years!

Top Rated Daycares Near Me


Preschool education (Frühpädagogik) is increasingly seen as an integral part of education as a whole; several states such as Bavaria have released detailed educational plans for daycare carriers who claim state subsidies. "Early pedagogics" has increasingly moved into the academic domain, with an increasing number of staff being trained at universities of applied science (Fachhochschulen) and regular universities. Non-academic personnel in daycare facilities have usually attended specialized schools for several years. In the state of Bavaria for example, daycare assistants (Kinderpfleger) will have attended school for two years, daycare teachers (Erzieher) for three years with an additional two-year internship. 

Where To Find Daycare


The classroom is arranged into clearly defined and well-stocked learning centers where learning through play is emphasized. The daily schedule allows for an appropriate balance of active and quiet, large and small group, child-initiated and teacher-facilitated activities. The curriculum is seen as everything that happens in the course of the day. Our emphasis is on children's interests and involvement in their learning and on their ability to make constructive choices. Teachers set up an enriched environment, plan activities based on children's developmental assessments and then observe, evaluate and extend their learning. 

Child Care Providers Near Me


Many organizations in the developed world campaign for free or subsidized childcare for all. Others campaign for tax breaks or allowances to provide parents a non-finance driven choice. Many of the free or subsidized childcare programs in the United States are also Child Development programs, or afterschool programs which hire certified teachers to teach the children while they are in their care. There are often local industry associations that lobby governments on childcare policy, promote the industry to the public[70] or help parents choose the right daycare provider.[71]
Traveling with children can be an exciting and wonderful adventure. It can provide your family with many memories that will last a lifetime. Research, planning and a lot of organization can help make the difference between a vacation that needs a vacation to recuperate, or a vacation that was invigorating, adventurous and restful, all at the same time.....
I'm the youngest of my family of four, though my extended family is very, very large. I've not only taken care of many of cousin's children, but I was a care taker for three years as my full time job. I watched over my older sister's business partner's two girls from senior year in high school to the beginning of my junior year in college. I would have continued with such work, yet my boss had recently quit her job and did not need my services for some time. Thus, I had to move on. I have since looked after her children when she needs, and as stated before, many of my cousins have had children and contact me for taking care of them. I really like working with kids, I learn so much for myself and I always come back with wonderful stories to share. I have also been accepted into a program to school children in foreign countries in the far future and it is something I'm greatly looking forward to.
In most cases children are taken care of by their parents, legal guardians, or siblings. In some cases, it is also seen that children care for other children. This informal care includes verbal direction and other explicit training regarding the child's behavior, and is often as simple as "keeping an eye out" for younger siblings.[2] Care facilitated by similar-aged children covers a variety of developmental and psychological effects in both caregivers and charge. This is due to their mental development being in a particular case of not being able to progress as it should be at their age.[1] This care giving role may also be taken on by the child's extended family. Another form of childcare that is on the rise in contrast to familial caregiving is that of center-based child care. In lieu of familial care giving, these responsibilities may be given to paid caretakers, orphanages or foster homes to provide care, housing, and schooling.

Home Daycare


We offer healthy, mostly organic and all homemade food. There is a large yard to run and play, sun, shade and plenty of trees.We offer a variety of learning experiences for children, including open-ended art, reading activities, music, dance, karate, physical education, yoga, cooking, drama, science and nature, indoor and outdoor games, and many more activities to enrich our learning program to make it fun and meaningful.

Group Child Care Licensing Rules


Vibrant colors and busy designs are often overstimulating to young children and can lead to behavioral issues. Our preschool center has homelike learning environments to reduce tension and to help our children transition more successfully from home to school. We use natural tones and soft elements like pillows, fabrics, carpets, and soft lighting to create a nurturing environment where children feel at home and thrive.

How Much Cost For Child Care


At Bright Stars Child care and Preschool we provide many facilities to make your childcare needs easier and more convenient.  These include handling you Colorado Childcare Assistance Program (CCAP) paperwork, working with the Child and Adult Food Program (CACFP) and for you convenience we are preregistered with the following counties and provide enrollment facility for them:
Child development researcher, Lian Tong, analysed the results from a Haley and Stansbury experiment saying, "Parent responsiveness also facilitates cognitive, social, and emotional development and reduces negative emotions in infants."[30] That is, the amount of time that a parent or teacher is willing to spend teaching, listening to, playing with, and exploring with the child the more socially, emotionally, and educationally developed the child will become. Whether that child receives the majority of his or her care at a center or at its house, the biggest factor in deciding what will have the best effect on the child will be those willing to put in the time and effort it takes to properly develop a child's social, physical, and academic skills.
Independent studies suggest that good daycare is not harmful.[56] In some cases, good daycare can provide different experiences than parental care does, especially when children reach two and are ready to interact with other children. Children in higher quality childcare had somewhat better language and cognitive development during the first 4½ years of life than those in lower quality care.

I have experience for more than 5 years working with kids at pre-schools and regular childcare. I know first aids and also have experience with swimming, so if your kids like swimming I'm comfortable with the water, my first language is Spanish so if you want your kids to learn a second language or they re already learning I can help to practice, also I m good helping the kids with school work.
I'm the youngest of my family of four, though my extended family is very, very large. I've not only taken care of many of cousin's children, but I was a care taker for three years as my full time job. I watched over my older sister's business partner's two girls from senior year in high school to the beginning of my junior year in college. I would have continued with such work, yet my boss had recently quit her job and did not need my services for some time. Thus, I had to move on. I have since looked after her children when she needs, and as stated before, many of my cousins have had children and contact me for taking care of them. I really like working with kids, I learn so much for myself and I always come back with wonderful stories to share. I have also been accepted into a program to school children in foreign countries in the far future and it is something I'm greatly looking forward to.

Daycares Around Me


Our students rotate through multiple learning environments including culinary, art, science, dramatic play, and our media center. This ensures daily exposure to STEAM-based learning, which uses a hands-on, systematic approach to teach science, technology, engineering, the arts, and mathematics while developing both problem-solving and critical thinking skills.

Child Care Prices


Traveling with children can be an exciting and wonderful adventure. It can provide your family with many memories that will last a lifetime. Research, planning and a lot of organization can help make the difference between a vacation that needs a vacation to recuperate, or a vacation that was invigorating, adventurous and restful, all at the same time.....

Free Childcare


It turns out all of those daycare germs may be a good thing, strangely enough. Researchers from the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale in France studied 280 cases of childhood cancer, and found that kids who had been in daycare were less likely to have acute leukemias than those who had only been at home. They theorized that kids who aren’t exposed to infections end up overreacting to germs later on, leading to immune system malfunctions like leukemia. Other studies have shown that kids who attend daycare or playgroups have about a 30 percent lower risk of developing the most common type of childhood leukemia.

Child Care


Learning Stories [57] are documents that are used by caregivers and educators in childcare settings. They use a storytelling format instead of a traditional ‘observation’ report to document the different ways that young children learn, and capture the moment in greater detail and provide parents with a greater insight into the events that occur in their child’s time in childcare.

Co Licensed Group Child Care


Learning stories originate from New Zealand as they use a learning model in their curriculum called "Te Whaariki". It highlights children's learning outcomes as 'disposition' which are “situated learning strategies plus motivation-participation repertoires from which a learner recognize, selects, edits, responds to, resists, searches for and constructs learning opportunities” [59][60]

Daycares In My Area


In 2006, the National Institute of Childhood Health and Human Development conducted a seminal study of over 3,000 kids, and the verdict should be reassuring to moms everywhere: Overall, children who were cared for by others didn’t develop any differently than children cared for exclusively by their mothers. However, there was one encouraging caveat: Children in high-quality daycare had better language and cognitive development during the first four-and-a-half years of life. Even better, the benefits remain at least through the age of 15.

In Home Licensed Daycare


You are now leaving the Cherry Creek School District (CCSD) portal. Please note that CCSD does not control nor can it guarantee the accuracy, relevance, timeliness, completeness, or appropriateness of any content contained on web sites and/or pages outside of the official CCSD portal. The information or opinions contained on these web sites and/or pages do not necessarily represent the views of the CCSD.
It is important to assess the value of caregivers because they are what truly make society function,[42] and often their work is under-appreciated. They prepare the next generation for school, work, and decision-making. The way in which a child is nurtured at a young age and through adolescence has both psychological and developmental effects that effect their future. Not only does the child depend on caregiving, but schools and employers depend on the childcare. The government also benefits because these children turn into productive members of society. Eventually, they will be the ones running the country.

Welcome to Happy Day Learning Center of Aurora, Inc., where we offer a safe, fun environment for your child to learn. We are committed to providing the highest quality of child care services for each and every child that comes through our door. For over 28 years, Happy Day Learning Center of Aurora has proudly taken care of the children in our community. As a locally owned learning center, we take the time to provide personalized attention to your children and their development.

Toddler Daycare


Many types of childcare discuss the different ways in which children are cared for by adults or older children. One additional type of child care involves children caring for adults. Children as caretakers are most often seen in developing countries with restricted or hard-to-access medical assistance. Child caretakers are common in families where the parents are affected by HIV/AIDS and other illnesses that might limit their parental functioning.[21]
Learning for babies is everything the child experiences: arrival, dressing and undressing, diapering, handwashing, feeding and playing. Routines are the heart of the infant curriculum. Teachers talk, snuggle, giggle, tickle or sing a song as they change a diaper or feed a baby. A simple, flexible daily schedule allows for relaxed routines and individualized eating and sleeping opportunities.
Welcome to Happy Day Learning Center of Aurora, Inc., where we offer a safe, fun environment for your child to learn. We are committed to providing the highest quality of child care services for each and every child that comes through our door. For over 28 years, Happy Day Learning Center of Aurora has proudly taken care of the children in our community. As a locally owned learning center, we take the time to provide personalized attention to your children and their development.

Toddler Daycare


Independent studies suggest that good daycare for non-infants is not harmful.[56] In some cases, good daycare can provide different experiences than parental care does, especially when children reach two and are ready to interact with other children. Bad daycare puts the child at physical, emotional and attachment risk. Higher quality care was associated with better outcomes. Children in higher quality childcare had somewhat better language and cognitive development during the first 4½ years of life than those in lower quality care. They were also somewhat more cooperative than those who experienced lower quality care during the first 3 years of life.

Day Care Center


Child day care includes center-based and home-based operations that provide care for children 13 years or younger for less than 24 hours a day while parents or guardians are at work or school. This includes Child Care Centers, School-age Program, Before or After-School Programs, Licensed Child Care Homes, Registered Child Care Homes, and Listed Family Homes.
Australia has a large child care industry,[72] however in many locations (especially in inner-city suburbs of large cities and in rural areas) the availability is limited and the waiting periods can be up to several years.[73] The Australian government's Child Care Subsidy[74] scheme provides generous assistance with child care costs, but this still leaves many families with a large out of pocket expense. The median weekly cost of centre-based long day care in 2013 was approximately A$364[75] which puts it out of the reach of lower income earners.[76]
The day care industry is a continuum from personal parental care to large, regulated institutions. Some childminders care for children from several families at the same time, either in their own home (commonly known as "family day care" in Australia) or in a specialized child care facility. Some employers provide nursery provisions for their employees at or near the place of employment. For-profit day care corporations often exist where the market is sufficiently large or there are government subsidies. Research shows that not-for-profits are much more likely to produce the high quality environments in which children thrive."[18] Local governments, often municipalities, may operate non-profit day care centers. For all providers, the largest expense is labor. Local legislation may regulate the operation of daycare centers, affecting staffing requirements. In Canada, the workforce is predominantly female (95%) and low paid, averaging only 60% of average workforce wage. Some jurisdictions require licensing or certification. Legislation may specify details of the physical facilities (washroom, eating, sleeping, lighting levels, etc.).
At Children's Learning Adventure®, students are always gearing up for a new adventure! When school is out, it is 'in' to join the fun. Each school break and summer camp offer a specialized, uniquely designed curriculum that encompasses STEAM learning and literacy. Each theme is developed to engage students of all levels in science, technology, engineering, the arts, and mathematics.
The classroom is arranged into clearly defined and well-stocked learning centers where learning through play is emphasized. The daily schedule allows for an appropriate balance of active and quiet, large and small group, child-initiated and teacher-facilitated activities. The curriculum is seen as everything that happens in the course of the day. Our emphasis is on children's interests and involvement in their learning and on their ability to make constructive choices. Teachers set up an enriched environment, plan activities based on children's developmental assessments and then observe, evaluate and extend their learning.

A care-penalty is the price one pays for doing care work for a family member. Care giving demands a lot out of an individual, and as a result there is a high opportunity cost. The opportunity cost can relate to both time and money. Instead of taking care of a family member, a caregiver could spend time working or performing more leisure activities. Care penalties are not strictly related to childcare- they can also refer to taking care of a sick family member, babysitting a younger sibling, or taking an elderly family member on errands such as grocery shopping or doctor's appointments.
Children that receive informal care do not receive the same educational and preparatory regimens as those in a center- or home-based center often do. Instead, learning occurs informally as a direct result of the caretaker and charge's interactions. Learning and development occur differently for every individual. Different periods of a child's growth are known to affect the care taking styles associated with them, from the care of an infant to that of an older adolescent. Other influences on care taking include the expectations of the three parties involved- the parents, caretakers, and children.[2]

Disclaimer: We at ChildcareCenter strive daily to keep our listings accurate and up-to-date, and to provide top-level, practical information that you can use and trust. However, ChildcareCenter.us does not endorse or recommend any of the childcare providers listed on its site, cannot be held responsible or liable in any way for your dealings with them, and does not guarantee the accuracy of listings on its site. We provide this site as a directory to assist you in locating childcare providers in your area. We do not own or operate any child care facility, and make no representation of any of the listings contained within ChildcareCenter.us.

Child Care Expense Deduction 2019


Located in north Boulder near 19th St. and Upland Ave in quiet and calm neighborhood, the preschool has abundant opportunities and space inside and outside to learn, play and grow. Our large, tree shaded yard is a magical place for children with play structures to boost gross motor skills, intimate areas for pretend play, friendly next door goats to interact with, a garden to dig in, bikes and trikes for exercise, and sand to boxes to build and dig in.

Daycare Rates


Independent studies suggest that good daycare is not harmful.[56] In some cases, good daycare can provide different experiences than parental care does, especially when children reach two and are ready to interact with other children. Children in higher quality childcare had somewhat better language and cognitive development during the first 4½ years of life than those in lower quality care.

Child Care Deduction 2019


Because of our long term commitment to finding the best childcare possible, we search for a wide selection of candidates to meet your family's needs. We take the utmost care to search for the very best applicants, we look for potential applicants that match your own unique situation. Having the same personnel for so many year had enabled us to develop lasting relationships with our thousands of families and caregivers for many years! Our wealth of experience and our relationships based on continuity and trust has earned us a loyal base of incredible families and candidates. We will gladly furnish Agency references from families that have used our services for many years!

Top Rated Daycares Near Me


The quality of the center based child care can be very influential on the child and on their overall development. Recent study showed that children in low end classrooms saw the activities as forced while the children in high end classrooms had more memorable experiences.[12] Even though this being the case between high and low end classrooms, other aspects such as the child's background and living situation can play an important role in their development.[13] Active children may thrive in the educational activities provided by a quality commercial care center, but according to the National Center for Early Development and Learning, children from low quality centers may be significantly less advanced in terms of vocabulary and reading skills.[14] Classes are usually largest in this type of care, ratios of children to adult caregivers will vary according to state licensing requirements. Some positive aspects of commercial care are that children may gain a sense of independence, academic achievement, and socialization.[15] Not only is this age crucial for the improvement of their social skills, but also it begins the stages of understanding a classroom setting. Childcare is seen as a reasonable option because it is different than parenting, since it can be seen as more of a routine for the child.[11] This in turn will only have a negative impact on the child if the parent is not their for the emotional needs of the child.[11] Children are placed into centers of socialization and learn many similarities and differences from one another from a very young age.[11] Children are also placed into settings to develop their linguistics and cognitive abilities, which can be measured through observations.[13] Not only is this age crucial for the improvement of their social skills, but also it begins the stages of understanding a classroom setting. These early ages of the child's life are crucial or it would otherwise have a negative impact on their future paths.[12]

Child Care Connections


In monetary- and production-based societies, informal childcare is seen in families who do not have enough funds to finance placing their children in a more expensive child care facility. A study done by Roberta Iversen and Annie Armstrong explains that due to long and irregular working hours of working parents, low- socioeconomic families are more likely to utilize informal childcare.[27] Those low income families are also more apt to work longer hours on an irregular and inflexible schedule, which ultimately makes using a childcare facility, that has regular business hours, unlikely.

Child Care Near Me For Infants


The Office of Children and Family Services provides support for people and organizations interested in starting child day care programs in their communities. As a general rule, any child day care program planning to serve three or more children for more than three hours a day on a regular basis must obtain a license or registration. Before becoming licensed or registered, the applicant must show that the proposed child day care program meets requirements established to promote the health and safety of children in care.
Work environment. Helping children grow, learn, and gain new skills can be very rewarding. Preschool teachers and child care workers often improve their own communication, learning, and other personal skills by working with children. The work is sometimes routine; however, new activities and challenges mark each day. Child care can be physically taxing, as workers constantly stand, walk, bend, stoop, and lift to attend to each child's needs, interests, and problems. Child care workers must be constantly alert, anticipate and prevent trouble, deal effectively with disruptive children, and provide fair, but firm, discipline.

Childcare Or Child Care


Child care centers have staffing requirements that are imposed by States and by insurers. Although requirements vary, in most cases a minimum age of 18 years is required for teachers, and directors or officers must be at least 21. In some States, assistants may work at age 16—in several, at age 14. Most States have established minimum educational or training requirements. Training requirements are most stringent for directors, less so for teachers, and minimal for child care workers and teacher assistants. In many centers, directors must have a college degree, often with experience in child day care and specific training in early childhood development. Teachers must have a high school diploma and, in many cases, a combination of college education and experience. Assistants and child care workers usually need a high school diploma, but that is not always a requirement. Many States also mandate other types of training for staff members, such as on health and first aid, fire safety, and child abuse detection and prevention. Some employers prefer to hire workers who have received credentials from a nationally recognized child day care organization.
In Scotland Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education is responsible for improving care and education for children from birth to age eighteen. This is implemented by inspections carried out by HMIE itself or by other members of inspection and review teams. Inspection reports include feedback from staff and parents as well as the inspectors, aiming to provide parents and carers information to help them decide whether a particular child care setting is providing good quality child care and meeting government standards.[25]
A care-penalty is the price one pays for doing care work for a family member. Care giving demands a lot out of an individual, and as a result there is a high opportunity cost. The opportunity cost can relate to both time and money. Instead of taking care of a family member, a caregiver could spend time working or performing more leisure activities. Care penalties are not strictly related to childcare- they can also refer to taking care of a sick family member, babysitting a younger sibling, or taking an elderly family member on errands such as grocery shopping or doctor's appointments.

Benefits and union membership. Employee benefits in child day care services often are minimal. A substantial number of child day care centers offer no healthcare benefits to any teaching staff. Reduced day care fees for workers' children, however, are a common benefit. Wage levels and employee benefits depend in part on the type of center. Nonprofit and religiously affiliated centers generally pay higher wages and offer more generous benefits than do for-profit establishments.

Private Daycare Near Me


Professional and related occupations. Preschool teachers make up the largest occupation in the child day care industry, accounting for about 35 percent of wage and salary jobs. They teach pupils basic physical, intellectual, and social skills needed to enter primary school. Teacher assistants accounted for about 14 percent of wage and salary employment in 2008; they give teachers more time for teaching by assuming a variety of tasks. For example, teacher assistants may set up and dismantle equipment or prepare instructional materials.

Baby Day Care Near Me


In most cases children are taken care of by their parents, legal guardians, or siblings. In some cases, it is also seen that children care for other children. This informal care includes verbal direction and other explicit training regarding the child's behavior, and is often as simple as "keeping an eye out" for younger siblings.[2] Care facilitated by similar-aged children covers a variety of developmental and psychological effects in both caregivers and charge. This is due to their mental development being in a particular case of not being able to progress as it should be at their age.[1] This care giving role may also be taken on by the child's extended family. Another form of childcare that is on the rise in contrast to familial caregiving is that of center-based child care. In lieu of familial care giving, these responsibilities may be given to paid caretakers, orphanages or foster homes to provide care, housing, and schooling.

Care For Kids


Additionally, legislation typically defines what constitutes daycare (e.g., so as to not regulate individual babysitters). It may specify details of the physical facilities (washroom, eating, sleeping, lighting levels, etc.). The minimum window space may be such that it precludes day cares from being in a basement. It may specify the minimum floor space per child (for example 2.8 square metres) and the maximum number of children per room (for example 24). It may mandate minimum outdoor time (for example 2 hours for programs 6 hours or longer). Legislation may mandate qualifications of supervisors. Staff typically do not require any qualifications but staff under the age of eighteen may require supervision. Some legislation also establishes rating systems, the number and condition of various toys, and documents to be maintained.[67] Typically[citation needed], once children reach the age of twelve, they are no longer covered by daycare legislation and programs for older children may not be regulated.

Daycare Curriculum


Our students rotate through multiple learning environments including culinary, art, science, dramatic play, and our media center. This ensures daily exposure to STEAM-based learning, which uses a hands-on, systematic approach to teach science, technology, engineering, the arts, and mathematics while developing both problem-solving and critical thinking skills.

Child Care Quotes


The Child Day Care service provides subsidized child day care for eligible families who are working or in job training and need assistance with caring for their children age birth through 12. Care is provided in licensed Child Day Care Centers and Family Care Homes. The parent's fee for care is based upon the number of family members and the gross family income.
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